History of Meteorology https://journal.meteohistory.org/index.php/hom <p><em>History of Meteorology</em> <em>(HoM)</em> is the only peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the history of meteorology and climatology.</p> International Commission for the History of Meteorology en-US History of Meteorology 1555-5763 A Question of Scale https://journal.meteohistory.org/index.php/hom/article/view/1 <p>This special issue of <em>History of Meteorology</em> explores processes of making, communicating, and embedding modern meteorological knowledge in late nineteenth and early twentieth century imperial Asia. Its focus is on the institutionalisation of meteorology in key nation-building activities such as developing agricultural services, synoptic mapping to predict storms, and participation in scientific organisations and initiatives. Collectively, the essays explore the intersection of local, regional, and international scales and processes in generating new forms of state-sponsored meteorological practices and institutions, though complex multi-layered networks involving different actors and modes of information flow across multiple scales. In so doing, they reveal the dynamism and mobility of people, objects, inscriptions, information, careers, ways of knowing, and so on across space and place. They build from the paradigm that mastering the means of understanding and—significantly—making use of the weather in Asia involved working with manifold modes of meteorological knowledge drawn from multiple origins.</p> Fiona Williamson Vladimir Janković Copyright (c) 2020 Fiona Williamson, Vladimir Janković https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-11-08 2020-11-08 9 Media, Typhoons, and Contests over Meteorological Sovereignty in Nineteenth-Century East Asia https://journal.meteohistory.org/index.php/hom/article/view/5 <p>In the second half of the nineteenth century, meteorology was enhanced by improvements in systems of rapid communication. Data telegraphed from numerous observation sites scattered over a vast area were sent to a head observatory to make weather maps. In Europe and the United States, these communication networks were both national and international. In contrast, meteorological networks along the typhoon-inflicted coasts of East Asia were far more complex, with various sites vying for predominance. In 1884, the British colonial government designated the Hong Kong Observatory as the main headquarters for gathering regional weather information. However, two Jesuit observatories already existed, one each in Shanghai and Manila. Both gathered data and provided typhoon warnings to the maritime trading communities and were eager to be regarded as the foremost observatories in the typhoon zone. This article explores typhoon warnings issued in commercial English-language newspapers and argues that these commercial papers allowed mercantile users of the weather service to compare the accuracy of the scientific work of these observatories. Furthermore, this paper examines how the inter-colonial flow of weather messages and mercantile public opinion challenged incipient conceptions of meteorological sovereignty.</p> Marlon Zhu Copyright (c) 2020 Marlon Zhu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-11-08 2020-11-08 9 Constructing the Monsoon: Colonial Meteorological Cartography, 1844–1944 https://journal.meteohistory.org/index.php/hom/article/view/3 <p>Meteorological cartographies provide a way of tracing understandings of the monsoon through the course of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This paper analyses developments in cartographic representations of the monsoon, from nautical charts to synoptic charts to upper-air charts, to show how such visualisations constructed meteorological knowledge. Assemblages of weather phenomena, people, politics, technologies, instruments, and graphic techniques produced these representations; in turn, these representations were leveraged in pursuit of human agendas. New perspectives and means of recording the monsoon contributed to the non-linear progression of monsoon science, from maritime understandings depicted in nautical charts, to fusions of maritime and terrestrial understandings depicted in synoptic charts, to atmospheric understandings depicted in upper-air charts. Although overlapping, these shifting modes of observation and representation mirrored shifting imperial concerns from oceanic trade to revenue extraction to global aviation. Analysing these visual representations, and the assemblages that produced them, reveals changing constructions of the monsoon and associated colonial agendas.</p> Beth Cullen Christina Leigh Geros Copyright (c) 2020 Beth Cullen, Christina Leigh Geros https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-11-08 2020-11-08 9 The Smithsonian Meteorological Project and Hokkaido, Japan https://journal.meteohistory.org/index.php/hom/article/view/6 <p>The focus of this paper is to explore the integration of the American Smithsonian Meteorological Observation System into Hokkaido, Japan; a topic that appears to have been neglected in previous studies. In so doing, it will offer a new perspective on nineteenth-century Japanese instrumental meteorology arguing that, currently, the history of meteorology in Japan has tended - wrongly - to be described as a centre (Tokyo) to periphery model. Using the example of Hokkaido – an area that the Japanese government were keen to develop economically - we can see how alternative meteorological channels operated in stark contrast to this model. Hokkaido’s meteorological network grew directly from input from American scientists and homegrown talent, many of whom were involved in the Smithsonian’s International Exchange Service and independent of Tokyo. Through this detailed case-study; it quickly becomes apparent that the development of scientific knowledge in Japan was more complex than the centre/periphery model allows and deeply embedded within global exchanges and enterprises.</p> Kae Takarabe Copyright (c) 2020 Kae Takarabe https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-11-08 2020-11-08 9 Building Networks of Knowledge Exchange in Agricultural Meteorology: The Agro-Meteorological Service in French Indochina https://journal.meteohistory.org/index.php/hom/article/view/4 <p>The International Meteorological Organization (IMO) is a privileged context for examining the transnational aspects of making and communicating meteorological knowledge that are the focus of this special issue. The IMO and its regular meetings offered meteorologists the opportunity to discuss national practices with their peers, debate over the design of instruments for collecting and sharing meteorological data, and learn from each other. Through these debates and collaborations networks of knowledge exchange were built and information on weather and climate circulated all over the world. The paper will examine the work of the IMO technical commission on agriculture and will focus, in particular, on the agro-meteorological service set up in French Indochina by the agronomist and climatologist Paul Carton, who was a member of the commission. It will argue that the networks of knowledge exchange established by the IMO Commission for Agricultural Meteorology were not one-way routes departing from Europe and leading to its present or former colonies or protectorates, but that they facilitated information transfer towards Europe as well as from Europe, and that this was necessary to acquire knowledge on key commodities produced in tropical areas and part of the global economy in the first half of the twentieth century.</p> Giuditta Parolini Copyright (c) 2020 Giuditta Parolini https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-11-08 2020-11-08 9